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Radicalism, in the sense of quality or state of being radical, seems an inevitable condition linked to conversion. Already in 1902, William James makes an irrevocable correlation between conversion and radicalism. Although many scholars have since then made several attempts to confirm, deconstruct or debunk this interrelationship, after 9/11, Belgian Muslim converts were predominantly framed as radical. Besides the proposition that radicalism is an inherent part of the conversion process, conversion is also viewed as treason.